According to study, “Restless Legs Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2018” some of the major companies that are currently working in the restless legs syndrome are UCB SA, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, C. H. Boehringer Sohn AG & Co KG, Arbor Pharmaceuticals LLC, Mundipharma International Ltd, Astellas Pharma Inc, Pfizer Inc, Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd, Otsuka Holdings Co Ltd, Jazz Pharmaceuticals Plc.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder of the part of nervous system that affects the legs and causes an urge to move them, also called willis-ekbom disease. It is often associated with depression and anxiety. Moreover it typically happens at night when patients are trying to sleep and sensations can lead to sleep deprivation and stress. In some RLS cases, patient may have trouble sitting for long periods of time such as in Long car riding and travelling in airplane. It is often described as aching, tingling, or crawling in nature.
The primary symptom of restless legs syndrome is a sensation of discomfort in the legs. Some other symptoms of RLS are itching, crawling, burning, creeping, pulling, aching and throbbing.
RLS is classified in many terms, which are; early-onset RLS, late-onset RLS, primary RLS and secondary RLS. Early-onset RLS starts before age of 45 years and progress gradually. Late-onset RLS advances more quickly and occurs more often. Primary RLS is a neurological disorder and its symptoms may slowly progress for years before becoming a regular occurrence whereas secondary RLS tends to be more severe than primary type.
There are many drugs are used for treatment of RLS such as metoclopramide, diphenhydramine, chloradiazepoxide, traditional antipsychotics, atypical neuroleptics, antidepressants, antihistamines, prochlorperazine, antidepressants and opiods etc. These drugs do not cure RLS, but manage symptoms. Some non-drug RLS treatments may include leg massages, hot baths or ice packs applied to the lega, iron and vitamin supplements, exercise, yoga & stretching, foot wrap, pneumatic compression, near-infrared spectroscopy, good sleep habits and a vibrating pad.
The diagnosis of RLS is based upon a thorough clinical evaluation; a complete patient history, including current medications; family history; and specialized tests. Some differential diagnosis of RLS are panic attacks, akathisia, polyneuropathies, meralgia paraesthetica, vesper’s curse, painful legs & moving toes syndrome and sleep onset myoclonus & nocturnal myoclonus etc.
There are some standard therapies are used for RLS, which are levodopa therapy and dopamine therapy. Levodopa therapy is a dopamine precursor that increases concentrations of dopamine in the brain: it is a therapy that blocks the activity of such enzymes is often combined with L-dopa. Dopamine therapy is the regulation of levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine through the use of either agonists, or antagonists: it includes ropinirole, pramipexole, and the rotigotine patch. Some common RLS triggers reported by individuals with RLS include: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, carbohydrates and refined sugars, foods high in sodium, extreme exercise, emotional stress, supplements, over-the-counter medications and prescribed medications.
There are many risk factors are included in RLS such as low iron levels, kidney failure, Parki nson’s disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy. RLS is also associated with some other health issues such as dizziness, headaches, drowsiness, flatulence, dry mouth, and nausea. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome may also suffer from psychiatric disorders such as depression and a decreased libido.
The structural changes make it even more convincing that RLS symptoms are stemming from unique changes in the brain and provide a new area of focus to understand the syndrome and possibly develop new therapies. In May 2018, main clinical trial is based upon completed suicide in RLS.
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications