Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) – Pipeline Review, H2 2018: Ken Research

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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease induced by repeated blows to the head. It is associated with the development of dementia also known as dementia pugilistica or punch-drunk syndrome. It is characterized by cognitive decline, mood disorders, and Parkinsonism. It is a very rare condition. It has been found in the brains of people who played contact sports, such as football, as well as others. In CTE, a protein called tau forms clumps that slowly spread throughout the brain, killing brain cells. Approximately 1% of the population of developed countries experiences CTE each year.

Some signs and symptoms of CTE are impulsive behavior, difficulty thinking, depression or apathy, difficulty planning & carrying out tasks, short-term memory loss, emotional instability, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts or behavior etc. Additionally, there are some suspected symptoms of CTE such as irritability, speech & language difficulties, trouble swallowing, trouble with the sense of smell, vision & focusing problems, dementia, motor impairment (difficulty making, tremor, loss of muscle movement, weakness or rigidity) and aggression etc.

According to study, “Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) – Pipeline Review, H2 2018” some of the major companies that are working in the chronic traumatic encephalopathy are Eustralis Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Prothena Corp Plc, Tetra Discovery Partners LLC.

There are three stages of CTE. The first stage is characterized by affective disturbances and psychotic symptoms. In the second stage, social irritability, erratic behavior, memory loss and initial symptoms of Parkinson disease are present. Moreover, the third stage is described as general cognitive dysfunction: it is often accompanied by Parkinsonism along with speech and gait abnormalities.

CTE is found mostly in people who have experienced repeated blunt force trauma to the head. It can occur most commonly in auto accidents, contact sports (football & soccer) and military personnel, who survived explosions or other head trauma. The primary risk factor of CTE is repetitive head trauma. Some tips are involved to reduce the risk of potential head injury such as wearing a helmet while playing sports (baseball, ice hockey, rugby, alpine skiing, and snowboarding) and wearing a helmet while riding a bicycle, motorcycle, rollerblading or engaging in any board sports etc.

There is currently no reliable way to diagnose CTE. Diagnose can be seen only upon inspection after death or autopsy. However, some researchers are actively trying to find a test for CTE that can be used while people are alive. These tests include neurological tests and brain-imaging tests. In neurological tests include reflexes, coordination, sense of sight & hearing, balance, muscle tone & strength, ability to get up from a chair and walk across room and speech-language-cognition including short & long-term memory etc. In brain imaging tests include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, event-related potentials & quantitative electroencephalography and single tone emission computerized tomography. MRI test involves many tests: susceptibility weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There are some homemade treatments are involved in a calming environment,  modified tasks, reassuring responses, regular exercise, nighttime rituals, and games & thinking activities etc.

Some drugs are used in relaxing of CTE, which is; cannabidiol, EUC-001, N-acetyl cysteine amide, monoclonal antibodies to inhibit tau for neurology, PU-AD, and TDP-101. CTE has been characterized by widespread TDP-43 and beta-amyloid. TDP-43 is involved in regulating translation in mitochondrial RNA in the brain. Beta-amyloid peptides have diagnostic and prognostic utility for a broad number of neurodegenerative disorders.

In 2018, it is estimated that a new medication ST266 will be developed for nasal spray administration of the anti-inflammatory agent. ST266 medicine is derived from processed placental cells. It is used to protect nerves in the eye or brain through the nose. As well as imaging of amyloid and tau proteins will aid in diagnosis. It is estimated that neuropsychological tests, brain imaging, and biomarkers will be useful for the diagnosis of CTE.

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