According to the study, ‘Prosthetic Heart Valves – Medical Devices Pipeline Assessment, 2018’, some major companies and institutions manufacturing prosthetic heart valves are Abbott Vascular Inc, Boston Scientific Corp, HLT, Inc., Medtronic plc, Polyvascular Corp to name a few. By end user segmentation, there are no clear guidelines regarding usage of mechanical or biological vales. The prime advantage of biological valves is that they do not require treatment with war faring but some problems might emerge after 5-7 years of usage. There are no primary failures concerning mechanical valves however they require anticoagulation to prevent thrombosis and thromboembolism which makes the patient susceptible to bleeding. It is because of these reasons that surgeons prefer to use mechanical valves in age less than 60 years and biological valve in people more than 60 years of age. Due to recent developments in biological valves, there is a trend especially in the United Kingdom to use these biological valves in younger patients.
The human heart can be considered as a displacement pump working every day of an individual’s life to support the blood circulation in the body. The heart is a twin pumping mechanism divided into 2 parts each. One aimed at receiving the blood from the veins and the other to pump out the blood via the arteries. One of these valves can be damaged due to reasons such as injury or by birth. Repair of the damaged valve involves a complete replacement with a device referred to as the prosthetic heart valve. The first prosthetic heart valve was invented in 1952 when a Plexiglas cage containing a ball occlude was inserted into the descending thoracic area. Later, many improvements came along in the device that claimed to improve the design and overall efficiency of the device. There are primarily two types of replacement valves. These are mechanical valves and biological valves. Biological valves are made from tissue of living being especially animal tissue whereas mechanical valves are manufactured from chemical and industrial materials. A new type of valve was developed beginning of the 21st century that is referred to as the Transcatheter valves. These consist of biological tissue mounted within an expandable stent.
The needs of the world are set to change rapidly. Currently a vast percentage of population that undergoes open heart procedures is conducted in countries representing a very small portion of the total population. As developing countries increase their per capita funds, the number of young patients suffering from rheumatic diseases will increase. Also, as the population of the developed countries begins to age the degenerative diseases will catch up. These trends shall shift the research into new variants of valves which would be characterized by physiological function, durability and not require warfarin. New Research is being conducted to develop biochemical valves and also, new oral coagulants are being developed which could make the mechanical valves safe and effective.
Huge potential lies in the heart valve industry and is expecting to see a strong growth rate in the future due to increasing awareness and financial capability of individuals all around the globe.
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications