Biomass is a source of fuel developed from organic materials which is a renewable and sustainable source of energy. Biomass is used to generate electricity or other forms of power. The biopower technologies convert these renewable biomass fuels into heat and electric energy. Burning, bacterial decay, and conversion to gas/liquid fuel are three ways to release the energy stored in biomass fuels to produce biopower. Bio-electricity is generated through direct combustion technique where biomass fuel is burned in a boiler to produce high-pressure steam. This steam runs over a series of turbine blades rotating them which drives a generator, thereby, producing electricity. Biomass is a substitute of coal in many existing power plant furnace in India, using co-firing process where two types of fuels are burnt at the same time.
Organic waste materials such as animal dung or human sewage are collected in oxygen-free tanks called digesters. The waste is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria producing methane and other by products forming renewable natural gas. This renewable natural gas can be purified and used to generate electricity. Biomass fuels undergo gasification and pyrolysis to convert from a gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel or vice-versa. Gasification process of solid biomass is carried out at high temperatures with very less supply of oxygen to produce synthesis gas. This gas is burned in a conventional boiler to produce electricity that is used to replace natural gas in small power plants. Pyrolysis process of biomass is carried out at lower temperature range with complete absence of oxygen to produce a crude bio-oil. This bio-oil is substituted with fuel oil or diesel in furnaces, turbines, and engines for electricity production.
According to the study “Biopower in India, Market Outlook to 2030, Update 2017-Capacity, Generation, Levelized Cost Of Energy (Lcoe), Investment Trends, Regulations And Company Profiles”, India’s renewable energy resources include solar, wind, small hydro, waste to energy, bio energy. All available conventional natural resources are expected to exhaust in near future including hydro power because water is now a scarce resource. Renewable natural sources such as wind and solar resource do not exhaust completely even if fully they are completely utilized. Other renewable natural resources are bio-wastes that can be converted in to energy. The leading players in the biopower sector are The Dhampur Sugar Mills Limited, Bajaj Hindusthan Ltd., Balrampur Chini Mills Limited, Mawana Sugars Limited, DCM Shriram Limited, EID Parry (India) Limited and Triveni Engineering & Industries Ltd.
Coal when undergoes combustion emits carbon soot and carbon monoxide causing respiratory diseases. Coal mining is a risky job and human right violation due to the unsafe environment. There were instances where miners were killed due to collapse of mining roofs and inhalation of hazardous gases such as Methane. Spillage of crude oil from oil rigs and pipelines into the water bodies are threatening the survival of marine life. Nuclear energy emits hazardous radioactive wastes which need to be handles for many years and any simple accident can cause human genetic mutations.
Majority of the rural population utilize traditional fuels such as wood, crop residue and animal manure cakes for their daily energy needs. However, combustion of these traditional fuels release poisonous gases and time consuming while collecting such fuels. Biopower ranks second in India’s energy sector with wind energy dominating and the country ranks fifth in renewable power globally. There are many standalone power plants in India based on wind, solar, biomass energy that are confined to a specified location, industry and many remote areas. Biopower is generally derived from agricultural residue such as husk, shell, strew, and deoiled cakes obtained after oil extraction. Domestic waste is also utilized to extract energy through various processes.
The renewable energy resources are expensive compared to the conventional energy resources. It was observed that the costs of clean energy such as wind and solar energy are deflating from few years. The introduction of clean energy resources has encouraged the Indian population to use portable solar cookers. Therefore, the clean energy sector is growing rapidly from the recent years. At few places, both wind and solar power plants are installed as two in one plants. This power is stored in batteries and Morni Hills in Haryana is first such plant. Solar panels were very expensive in the recent years exhibiting a very poor performance in solar energy sector. With falling prices the photo voltaic panels are now affordable with increased competitors. India’s largest solar plant is located in Madhya Pradesh and generates electricity for low price.
India has various fuels available for the power market and also has many established power plants with huge capacity. It was observed that Indian population in the rural areas are attracted towards the biopower because of huge availability of biomass, increase in employment rate, and cheapest energy source for low income group. These factors may attract establishment of several biopower projects to overcome the nation’s energy requirements. The affordable cost of the biopower is sure to drive the energy sector with many investors, while implementing government legislations. Indian biopower sector will witness a drastic growth over the coming years.
Key Topics Covered in the Report:
India Biopower Market Research Report
Biopower Generation Capacity India
Biopower Investments in India
India Major Biopower Plants
India Biopower Plants Regulations
Renewable Energy Resources Market Research Report India
Agricultural Residue in India
The Dhampur Sugar Mills Limited Market Share
Upcoming Biopower Projects in India
Bajaj Hindusthan Ltd Market Share In Biopower Sector
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications