According to study, “Renal Cell Carcinoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2018” some of the major companies that are currently working in the renal cell carcinoma are Pfizer Inc, Novartis AG, Bayer AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Lt, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Merck & Co Inc, AstraZeneca Plc, Amgen Inc, Eisai Co Ltd.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney. It is also known as renal adenocarcinoma or grawitz’s tumor. It occurs most often in men 50 to 70 years old. Some of the symptoms of RCC are hematuria, flank pain and abdominal mass. Some other symptoms of RCC are fever, weight loss, night sweats, malaise, hypertension, hypercalcemia, constipation, plethora, leg & ankle swelling and abnormal urine color.
Classification of RCC is based on cyytogentic, genetic and histological features. RCC is mainly classified into many types, which are; clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC and collecting duct carcinoma (CDC). Clear cell RCC is characterized by malignant epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm and a compact-alveolar or acinar growth pattern interspersed with intricate, arborizing vasculature.Papillary RCCis a type of cancer that forms inside the lining of the kidney tubules it alsoaccounts for 10-20% of RCC. Chromophobe RCC accounts for about 5% of all RCC cases.CDC is a rare and aggressive form of kidney cancer that begins in the collecting duct of the kidney. CDC cancer has no signs or symptoms until the cancer is at an advanced stage.
There are many risk factors are involved in RCC, which are; smoking, high blood pressure, polycystic kidney disease, obesity, high blood pressure, dialysis treatment, horseshoe kidney, von hippel-lindau disease, family history of disease, birt-hogg-dube syndrome and long term use of certain medicines such as pain pills or water pills.
RCC’s management is defined as localized disease and metastatic disease. In RCC, two type of surgery are used: radical nephrectomy and nephron sparing surgery. In radical nephrectomy surgery, the kidney is removed from body whereas in nephron sparing surgery, only part of the kidney is removed from body, also known as partial nephrectomy.Radiotherapy cancer treatment uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors, also called radiation therapy: it is of two types; adjuvant and neo-adjuvant radiotherapy.Adjuvant therapy may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, or biological therapy.Neo-adjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment. Some other therapies are including T-cellagonists, tumor vaccines, T-regulatory antagonists and adoptivecell therapy.
RCC’s diagnosis is involved physical examination, lab tests and imaging tests. Fever and high blood pressure is defined in physical examination. Some lab tests are complete blood count, serum calcium and urin analysis. Some imaging tests are MRI scan, PET scan, ultrasound abdomen, chest x-ray, intravenous pyelogram, bone scan, abdominal CT scan, renal angiography and biopsy.
The treatment scene for RCC is changing with theintroduction of next-generation vascular endothelial growth factortargeted therapies,immunotherapy agents, and combination regimens.In recent decades, the incidence of RCC has been steadily rising by 2–4% each year.Approximately 2–4% of RCC is hereditary and since the predisposition genes have been identified, genetic screening can identify carriers who represent a group at high risk of RCC.
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications