According to study, “Respiratory Failure Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2018” some of the major companies that are working in the respiratory failure are Pfizer Inc, Merck & Co Inc, MallInckrodtPlc, Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd, Cook Children’s Health Care System, ChiesiFarmaceuticiSpA, BioMarck Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Baxter International Inc, ApepticoForschung und Entwicklung GmbH, Air Liquide SA.
Respiratory failure is a syndrome in which the respiratory system fails in one or both of its gas exchange functions. These functions are oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. The main goal of respiratory failure is to get oxygen to patient’s lungs & other organs and remove carbon dioxide from patient’s body. Some diseases and conditions that affect breathing can cause respiratory failure, which are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and spinal cord injuries. COPD prevents enough air from flowing in and out of the airways whereas spinal cord injuries can damage the nerves that control breathing. Symptoms of respiratory failure are fatigue, rapid breathing, loss of consciousness, irregular heart rate and bluish coloration of the lips or fingernails. Some of prominent drugs used in the treatmentof respiratory failure are nitric oxide, INOmax and caffeine or sodium benzoate.
Respiratory failure is classified into two types, which are; acute respiratory failure and chronic respiratory failure. Acute respiratory failure occurs when pulmonary system is no longer able to meet the metabolic demands of the body: it is of two types; hypoxemic and hypercapnic.
Some treatments involved in respiratory failure such as oxygen therapy, drug therapy and nutritional therapy. Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides extra oxygen to patient, also known as supplemental oxygen. Drug therapy involves the administration of drugs to treat or prevent disease: it is of two types; bronchodilators and anti-biotics. Nutritional therapy maintains protein and energy stores. Some other treatments are non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and a rocking bed. NPPV uses mild air pressure to keep airways open while sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure is one type of NPPV. Additionally a rocking bed consists of a mattress on a motorized platform. Rocking beds deliver safe and effective ventilator support for patients and enable their continued independence.
There are many factors are involved that affects hypoxemic respiratory failure. These factors are ventilation perfusion (V/Q) mismatch, shunt, diffusion limitation and alveolar hypoventilation. V/Q mismatch is an imbalance between alveolar ventilation and pulmonary capillary blood flow. Shunt is a hole or a small passage in medicine, which allows movement of fluid from one part of the body to another. Diffusion limitations gas exchange is compromised by a process that destroys the membrane. Alveolar hypoventilation is a rare disorder in which a person does not take enough breaths per minute. Some differential diagnoses of respiratory failure are asthma, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, bacterial pneumonia, corpulmonale, emphysema, cyanosis, mechanical ventilation, restrictive lung disease and viral pneumonia.
The most significant advances in treating respiratory failure have been related to techniques and technology and future advances will occurin these areas. Ventilators are being developed with improved monitoring and other technological advances to reduce complications and enhance safety. New machines will synchronize better with patients, making them more comfortable.
For long-term applications, machines are becoming more portable and quiet. In the future, small ventilators could even be strapped to a patient’s belt, enabling ventilator assistance while the patient walks in a mall or climbs stairs at home.
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications